Future! Credit: https://goo.gl/1oDBfh

Concurrency has many different abstractions: There are the classic processes and threads, the older but newly-new actor-based concurrency, CSP style concurrency (looking at you Go), and the quite popular future/promise. There are more, but one thing they all have in common is the goal to create a better way to achieve concurrent computation. This is great, if we understand what we’re abstracting.

When it comes to futures, there are a great number of articles online about how to get started using a particular implementation/framework for futures. However there is a much smaller number of articles that properly explain what a future is, how they work, and what exactly the abstraction provides you. This article will walk through those details by implementing futures from the ground-up.

Before we jump right into code, what is the definition of future? From Wikipedia we get:

… future, promise, delay, and deferred refer to constructs used for synchronizing program execution in some concurrent programming languages. They describe an object that acts as a proxy for a result that is initially unknown, usually because the computation of its value is yet incomplete.

A future represents the result of some computation, which will eventually yield a result. The “eventually” bit typically implies that there is some computation that is executing asynchronously (in another thread, for example) but can also imply a deferred value. You can think of a deferred value as a lazy value that is not computed until needed. For this article, we will assume that a future is the result of an async computation. Note that different implementations may use the names “future,” “promise,” and “deferred” interchangeably and may differ from this post.

Great! Now that we understand what a future is, let’s build our abstraction from the ground-up.

The Tools

For this post we’ll be using Scala without any any additional libraries and will only be utilizing threads for our concurrency. We’ll also make use of some data-structures for sharing values between threads. Even though I am using Scala, I will avoid any advanced syntax so those unfamiliar can still (hopefully) follow along.

Part 1 - Concurrent Computations

Before we can get into the meat of our abstraction, we need to at least be able to execute some code concurrently, which can be done simply with threads. Using a new thread for each computation looks like:

val concurrentComputation = new Thread(new Runnable {
  def run(): Unit = {
    println("I'm running concurrently! whoop!")


This is fairly simple, but some things are worth pointing out.

  • 1) Unit means that we didn’t return a value (similar to void in other languages).
  • 2) The Thread object does not start executing the run function until we call start() on line 7.

Despite its simplicity, this is a lot of code to type for each block of code we want to run concurrently. Let’s rewrite this as a function that we can pass a block of code into. For this article, all code will live in the simple.future namespace.

 1 package simple.future
 3 def future(block: => Unit): Unit = {
 4   val concurrentComputation = new Thread(new Runnable {
 5     def run(): Unit = {
 6       block
 7     }
 8   })
10   concurrentComputation.start()
11 }

And we can now call our function like so

future { print("I'm running concurrently! whoop!") }

The Scala bits that may throw you here are

  • 1) block: => Unit is a pass-by-name value that returns a Unit (not executed until called).
  • 2) block on line 6 evaluates the user-provided code within the run method, which is called once the Thread is running.
  • 3) { ... } is a block of code that is passed to future as the first parameter to the function.

Just a quick note on point #1: Pass-by-name means that we can pass around blocks of user-code without actually executing them. Only once we request the “value” from the block (like we do on line 6 above), is the code executed. This is essential for how our futures execute code asynchronously.

Fantastic! Now we just need to somehow return a result and we’re done, right? Well, not exactly. While that would get us pretty close to the initial definition, I want to stay a little more grounded and mimic what a future implementation would do in practice. We’re also missing something from our current function.

In a real, multi-threaded application there are often multiple operations happening at once; many of which may be simultaneously using futures. However, not all futures are equally important. For example, pushing work to a queue that came from a user is arguably more important than flushing metrics to your metrics store. Currently, we create a thread for each future. It is up to the threads to fight it out with the JVM/OS scheduler for resources. A better solution would make use of thread pools.

Thread pools are small groups of threads that work is executed on. If there is more work than threads in the pool, then they are queued up and executed once a thread from the pool is available. We can control priority within our application by creating larger pools for more important, time-sensitive work and smaller pools for less important, less critical work.

Let’s rewrite our future function to work with a Java thread pool!

 1 package simple.future
 3 import java.util.concurrent.LinkedBlockingQueue
 4 import java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor
 5 import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit
 7 def future(tp: ThreadPoolExecutor)(block: => Unit): Unit = {
 8   if (tp.isShutdown || tp.isTerminating || tp.isTerminated) {
 9     throw new RuntimeException(
10       "Cannot execute on threadpool that is not active/running.")
11   }
12   tp.execute(new Runnable {
13     def run(): Unit = {
14       block
15     }
16   })
17 }
19 val tp = new ThreadPoolExecutor(4, 4, 0L,
20                                 TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS,
21                                 new LinkedBlockingQueue[Runnable])
22 future(tp) { print("I'm running concurrently! whoop!") }

We now have a future function that works with thread pools! To explain some things

  • 1) future has multiple parameter lists (...). This allows us to continue to use the block-syntax for user-provided code { ... }.
  • 2) future now throws a RuntimeException if it is given a ThreadPoolExecutor that is not usable.
  • 3) tp.execute(...) adds work to the thread pool’s queue and runs it asynchronously.
  • 4) tp on line 19 is a thread pool with exactly 4 threads which uses a LinkedBlockingQueue as the backing queue when there is more work than available threads.

Part 2 - Returning the Result

We’re quickly working our way towards a future implementation, but currently we don’t have a way to return a value back to the caller. According to our definition at the beginning, we need to use some sort of “proxy” object that will eventually contain the value. Let’s define what this proxy object could look like.

 1 package simple.future
 3 class Future[T] {
 4   private var result: Option[T] = None
 6   // writer functions
 7   def write(value: T): Unit = {
 8     this.result = Some(value)
 9   }
11   // read functions
12   def isReady: Boolean = result.isDefined
13   def get: T = {
14     if (! isReady) {
15       throw new RuntimeException(
16         "Future is not ready yet, no value to get")
17     }
18     return result.get
19   }
20 }

Some quick notes

  • 1) [T] is a generic type of T to be determined by the user.
  • 2) Option is a type that is either present (Some) or absent (None).
  • 3) If the future is not completed, we throw an exception on access.

Now that we have our “proxy” object, we can update our future function to return a value using our new Future[T] class.

 1 package simple.future
 3 def future[T](tp: ThreadPoolExecutor)(block: => T): Future[T] = {
 4   val fut = new Future[T]
 6   if (tp.isShutdown || tp.isTerminating || tp.isTerminated) {
 7     throw new RuntimeException(
 8       "Cannot execute on threadpool that is not active/running.")
 9   }
10   tp.execute(new Runnable {
11     def run(): Unit = {
12       // call user-provided code and write result to the future
13       val result = block
14       fut.write(result)
15     }
16   })
18   return fut
19 }

Some quick notes:

  • 1) The block is now a block of code that evaluates to a type T.
  • 2) future now has type-parameter of T and a return type of Future[T].
  • 3) The value of the Future[T] is written inside the run function.

With this newly updated function, we can still call it the same way. The exception is that it now means something if we capture the result.

val f: Future[String] = future(tp) { "I'm running concurrently! whoop!" }

Awesome! We have our proxy object. But the next question becomes, “How do I use it?” If we wanted to wait on the call we made above for f, we might do something like the following:

val MaxWait = 1000
var i = 0

while (!f.isReady && i < MaxWait) {
  i += 5


This code is far from ideal, but it works for what we want to do. Later on in this article we’ll get to more advanced (and more idiomatic) techniques for working with future values.

However, even though this works, there are two issues with this setup: The first is that anyone can write a value into the future. Ideally this should be hidden as part of the async processing and separated from the Future object. For example, this code should not be valid:

val f: Future[Int] = future(tp) {
  Thread.sleep(1000)  // sleep future for 1s
println(f.get())  // prints 6

// value of f set to 5 1 second later

The second issue is that the value is not immutable. Once it is written, it should not be possible to change the value. As in our example above, once the future stops sleeping, the value would change to 5. A future is always the result of a single computation, and that value must never change.

First let’s address the issue that anyone can write into our Future. The common way this is solved is to introduce another type, called the promise. If a future is meant to read the value, then the promise is meant to write the value. By creating two separate objects, we can hand them to the appropriate parties. Let’s see what this would look like:

 1 package simple.future
 3 class Future[T](private val promise: Promise[T]) {
 4   def isReady: Boolean = promise.isReady
 5   def get: T = promise.get
 6 }
 8 class Promise[T] {
 9   private var result: Option[T] = None
11   lazy val futurePair: Future[T] = new Future[T](this)
13   // writer functions
14   def write(value: T): Unit = this.synchronized {
15     this.result = Some(value)
16   }
18   // reader functions
19   def isReady: Boolean = this.synchronized { result.isDefined }
20   def get: T = this.synchronized {
21     if (!isReady) {
22       throw new RuntimeException(
23         "Future is not ready yet, no value to get")
24     }
25     result.get
26   }
27 }

With this new version we can see that Future is now just a read-only interface to our new Promise class, and that each future contains a private reference to its Promise pair. The new Promise class is mostly the same as our original Future implementation with two exceptions:

  • 1) A new futurePair value which creates a Future object that is paired with the current Promise object. This is only generated when needed (thus the lazy part).
  • 2) All read and write methods are now contained in this.synchronizedblocks, which synchronizes access to the Promise object. This is good practice for any object that will be accessed from multiple threads.

However, even with this separation of concerns, Promise can be written to more than once. Since we’ve already synchronized our methods (ensuring no concurrent updates), we can add a simple check to solve our problem:

 1 package simple.future
 3 class Promise[T] {
 4   private var result: Option[T] = None
 5   private var isWritten: Boolean = false;
 7   // writer functions
 8   def write(value: T): Unit = this.synchronized {
 9     if (this.isWritten) {
10       throw new RuntimeException(
11         "Cannot write value. Already written" )
12     }
13     this.result = Some(value)
14     this.isWritten = true
15   }
17   // other functions ...
18 }

Part 3 - Handling Failures

We can now return values from futures, but what happens if the computation fails and we throw an exception? How do we handle that? What value is returned for the future?

Well exceptions are easy, we can just use a try-catch block for that, right?

try {
  val f = future(tp) {
    throw new RuntimeException("sorry!")
} catch {
  case t: Throwable => println("whoops! something went wrong")

I’m sorry, but no. This is never going to work.

Future! Credit: https://goo.gl/VWghzJ

Why you ask? Well, the throw in the above code is actually not called on the current thread. Remember that the code in block is not evaluated until called within the Runnable.run method. It is called asynchronously on another thread — and guess what? That exception will not propagate to the current thread the above code is executing on. What would actually happen is that future f would just never receive a value because Promise.write would never be called.

Well the answer is simple right? Just put the try-catch inside the Runnable.run function that future creates to execute the code block. Well, what if an exception occurs, what value do you return? To handle this, we need to wrap our T value in Future[T] in a success/fail object:

package simple.future

trait Try[T]
case class Success[T](value: T) extends Try[T]
case class Failure[T](throwable: Throwable) extends Try[T]

With these new types, we can now represent the result of a future, previously just T, as a Try[T]. Of course with this, we need to update our read and write functions:

 1 package simple.future
 3 class Future[T](private val promise: Promise[T]) {
 4   def get: Try[T] = promise.get
 5   // ...
 6 }
 8 class Promise[T] {
 9   private var result: Option[Try[T]] = None
11   def write(value: Try[T]): Unit = // ...
13   def get: Try[T] = // ...
15   // ...
16 }

As well as our future function:

 1 package simple.future
 3 def future[T](tp: ThreadPoolExecutor)(block: => T): Future[T] = {
 4   val promise = new Promise[T]
 6   // omitted code
 8   tp.execute(new Runnable {
 9     def run(): Unit = {
10       try {
11         // call user-provided code and write result to the future
12         val result = block
13         promise.write(Success(result))
14       } catch {
15         case t: Throwable => promise.write(Failure(t))
16       }
17     }
18   })
19   return promise.futurePair
20 }

Now that we are wrapping values into either a success or failure state and capturing any exceptions, we can now write code like:

val f: Future[String] = future(tp) {
  if (scala.util.Random.nextBoolean()) {
    "I'm running concurrently! whoop!"
  } else {
    throw new RuntimeException("We were unlucky... bummer")

val MaxWait = 1000
var i = 0
while (!f.isReady && i < MaxWait) {
  i += 5

f.get match {
  case Success(value) => println(value)
  case Failure(t)     => t.printStackTrace()

Here we are creating a future which may or may not fail, depending on a randomly generated boolean. Once we’ve waited for it to complete, we access the value with get and then use pattern matching (the match keyword and a popular feature of Scala) to either print the returned string or the error trace, depending on the value returned.

Part 4 - Async Access

To recap what we’ve created so far:

  • A future method that takes a block of code, executes on a thread-pool, and returns a Future.
  • Future class for reading values, and a Promise for writing values.
  • Try[T] to represent success and failure values from our asynchronously executed code-block.

This is a good start to creating a realistic implementation of futures. However, there are still some very big holes. Namely, accessing the final value leaves a lot to be desired. Currently to get the value we have to block on the current thread and wait for the future to be completed.

The easy way to not block is to provide callback functions. Callbacks are user-provided blocks of code that are registered with the Future object and called once the Future is ready. We’ll define three functions: onComplete, onSuccessand onFailure. Let’s start first with onComplete:

 1 package simple.future
 3 class Future[T](private var promise: Promise[T]) {
 4   // ...
 6   def onComplete(tp: ThreadPoolExecutor)(f: Try[T] => Unit): Unit = {
 7     promise.registerOnComplete(tp, f)
 8   }
 9 }
11 class  Promise[T] {
12   // ...
14   var onCompleteHandlers: List[(ThreadPoolExecutor, Try[T] => Unit)] = Nil
16   def registerOnComplete(tp: ThreadPoolExecutor, f: Try[T] => Unit): Unit = {
17     // add 2-tuple of thread-pool and function to list
18     onCompleteHandlers ::= (tp, f)
19   }
21   def callOnCompletes(value: T): Unit = {
22     for (handler <- onCompleteHandlers) {
23       val tp: ThreadPoolExecutor = handler._1
24       val f:  Try[T] => Unit     = handler._2
26       future(tp) {
27         f(value)
28       }
29     }
30   }
32   def write(value: Try[T]): Unit = this.synchronized {
33     if (this.isWritten) {
34       throw new RuntimeException(
35         "Cannot write value. Already written")
36     }
37     this.result = Some(value)
38     this.isWritten = true
39     this.callOnCompletes(value)
40   }
41 }

We now have a new method on Future of onComplete which registers a callback handler with Promise. The reason that Promise handles the firing of the callback is because it maintains the relationship that Future is read-only and that Promise is the write interface. With this, we can fire the callbacks as soon as Promise.write is called.

Some final notes about the above code:

  • 1) onCompleteHandlers is a list of 2-tuples containing the thread pool and the block of code to execute on the result. It is also initialized to an empty list (Nil).
  • 2) The code onCompleteHandlers ::= (tp, f) appends a 2-tuple to the list onCompleteHandlers.
  • 3) Values in 2-Tuples are accessed by x._1 and x._2 as on line 23 and 24.

And we can now use our new function like:

val f: Future[String] = future(tp) {
  if (scala.util.Random.nextBoolean()) {
    "I'm running concurrently! whoop!"
  } else {
    throw new RuntimeException("We were unlucky... bummer")

f.onComplete(tp) { res: Try[String] =>
  res match {
    case Success(value) => println(value)
    case Failure(t)     => t.printStackTrace()

With this, we could easily imagine how to write other functions such as onSuccess, onFailure, etc.

Part 5 - Composing Futures

Callbacks are an excellent way to access data retrieved/generated from an asynchronous operation. However, what if we wanted to combine the value from two async operations, or we wanted to transform the result of an async operation, but still maintain a future to that transformed value in the current thread? This is where futures really shine: The ability to combine the result of multiple futures together.

To achieve this, we need to have callbacks that return yet another Future as a proxy object to a result of the callback. The first function we’ll look at is map with the following signature:

class Future[T](...) {
  def map[U](tp: ThreadPoolExecutor)(f: T => U): Future[U]

map takes a thread pool and a function and returns another future. The user-provided function, f, takes as a parameter a successful value from the current future and returns a value of type U. However map returns a value of type Future[U]. This allows us to call map on a Future that may or may not be completed. This means that we can’t return the result of our transformation (f) directly, but must use another Future. This is best explained with some examples:

// base future we'll be map'ing
val f: Future[Int] = future(tp) {
  Thread.sleep(2000)  // sleep 2 seconds

// multiply f by 10
val f10: Future[Int] = f.map(tp) { two => two * 10 }

// turn into a string
val fs: Future[String] = f.map(tp) { two => two.toString }

Because f takes at least 2 seconds to run, you can see why we can’t immediately apply our transformations to the value. Instead we use map to defer the transformations for when the future has completed, but we can still hold onto a proxy object representing the result of those calculations.

But what happens if the future being mapped fails? In that case the error propagates to all failed values:

val f: Future[Int] = future(tp) {
  throw new RuntimeException("whoops!")

val f10: Future[Int] = f.map(tp) { value => value * 10 }

f10.onComplete(tp) { res: Try[Int] =>
  res match {
    case Success(value) => // do nothing
    case Failure(t)     => t.printStackTrace()

The above code would print out a stacktrace for f10. The stacktrace would say “whoops!” and would be the same exception from f passed along to f10. This makes sense, as we cannot transform an exception as if it were a successful value.

Enough examples, let’s take a stab at implementing map:

 1 package simple.future
 3 class Future[T](...) {
 4   def map[U](tp: ThreadPoolExecutor)(f: T => U): Future[U] = {
 5     promise.map(tp)(f)
 6   }
 7 }
 9 class Promise[T] {
10   def map[U](tp: ThreadPoolExecutor)(f: T => U): Future[U] = {
11     val mapPromise = new Promise[U]
12     // create onComplete block that calls user-function (f) on success
13     // and passes through exceptions on failure
14     val block: Try[T] => Unit = { res: Try[T] =>
15       res match {
16         case Success(v) => futureWithPromise(tp, mapPromise) {
17           f(v)
18         }
19         case Failure(t) => mapPromise.write(Failure(t))
20       }
21     }
22     registerOnComplete(tp, block)
24     return mapPromise.futurePair
25   }
26 }

You can see that we are defining this on Promise. This is because Promise is our writable interface and we want to take advantage of the registerOnCompletefunction we saw earlier. map works by creating a new promise/future pair and returning the future immediately. However the callback that is registered allows us to call our user-provided function f in the callback and write the result to the new promise/future pair we created. For failures we can see the write happening:

case Failure(t) => mapPromise.write(Failure(t))

This allows us to propagate failure and by-pass the user-provided code which expects a value. This allows us to call map without having to worry about additional error handling.

But wait, what is this futureWithPromise function, and what does it do? Remember future from earlier that takes a block of user code and a thread pool and returns a future? Well this is pretty much the same thing except that it takes a pre-created promise object. With this, we can re-define our future method as well (to avoid duplication) and we get:

 1 package simple.future
 3 def futureWithPromise[T](tp: ThreadPoolExecutor, promise: Promise[T])
 4                         (block: => T): Future[T] = {
 5   if (tp.isShutdown || tp.isTerminating || tp.isTerminated) {
 6     throw new RuntimeException(
 7       "Cannot execute on threadpool that is not active/running.")
 8   }
 9   tp.execute(new Runnable {
10     def run(): Unit = {
11       try {
12         // call user-provided code and write result to the future
13         val result = block
14         promise.write(Success(result))
15       } catch {
16         case t: Throwable => promise.write(Failure(t))
17       }
18     }
19   })
21   return promise.futurePair
22 }
24 def future[T](tp: ThreadPoolExecutor)(block: => T): Future[T] = {
25   val promise = new Promise[T]
27   return futureWithPromise(tp, promise)(block)
28 }

We can see that futuerWithPromise is basically our previous implementation of future and future is now just a convenience method for when you don’t have your own Promise already created.

So much more!

When it comes to composing futures, there is often a myriad of functions available to transform futures in different ways. For example, these two functions are very common (although the naming may differ across implementations):

class Future[T](...) {
  def flatMap[T](tp: ThreadPoolExecutor)(f: T => Future[U]): Future[U]

  def recover(tp: ThreadPoolExecutor)(f: Throwable => T): Future[T]

flatMap is very much like our map, but this allows the user-provided code to return a Future[U] instead of just a U. Think of making a web-request which returns a future, and then using the result of the first web-request to make a second web-request. For this case you would use a flatMap.

recover is a way to not only handle a failed future, but also provide/calculate some sort of default value. Imagine making a web-request and, assuming it fails, using recover to provide a cached result. When combining recover with other compositing functions like map and flatMap, we can define a future with all of our transformations and error handling in a declarative way.

Since you’ve seen the basic format for implementing these type of functions (with the map example), I’ll leave it as an exercise to the reader (you) to define flatMap and recover.


That was quite a bit of work! This is still a very bare-bones, basic implementation of futures but, it should be enough to give us some solid ground to stand on for understanding futures, and hopefully understanding why this is a useful (in my humble opinion) and popular abstraction. If you’re interested in what a real-world future implementation looks like, check out some of the links below (note that this post most closely mimics the API of the Scala implementation):